Jain Thirthankara sculptures that were found in the excavations near the town revealed the existence of Jainism in the Megalithic age. Jangaon was the second capital region of the Kalyani Chalukyas in the 11th century. After the demise of the Nayaks 50-years rule, this region came under the Kakatiya dynasty from 1195 to 1323, before transferring to the Khalji dynasty of Delhi Sultanate under Ala-ud-din Khilji rule. The region was part of the Bahmani Sultanate and then the Sultanate of Golconda Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1512. The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered Golconda in 1687 and it remained part of the Mughal empire.

Qamar-ud-din Khan Asaf Jah I declared sovereignty in 1724 and established the Asaf Jahi Dynasty. In 1854 the Jangaon area was under the administrative region of Bhonagheer Circars. Jangaon is mentioned as Zungaon in an 1854 map. In 1866 new districts were created. all Circars were delimited and merged. Bhonagheer, Daverakonda and Nalgonda Circars merged to form Nalgonda District but the Jangaon area was transferred from Bhongir Circar to Warangal District in 1866, Cherial was renamed Taluka by adding some parts of Wardannapet region, with its headquarters at Jangaon.

In 1905 the Princely state of Hyderabad was sub-divided into four divisions. Aurangabad Division, Gulbarga Division, Gulshanabad Division and Warangal Division Districts were delimited in 1905. Jangaon (Cherial), Taluka and Kodar (Kodad). Taluka was transferred to Nalgonda District from Warangal district. Hyderabad State was annexed to the Dominion of India by operation polo in 1948, and became an Indian state. In 1948 Jangaon taluka was part of Nalgonda district in Gulshanabad Division of Hyderabad State.

In 1953, there was a shuffling of areas, shifting some villages from one taluka to the other. Subsequently, when Warangal district was divided to facilitate administrative control and on 1 October 1953, Khammam district was formed.Khammam, Yellandu, Madhira, Burugunpahad and Palavancha talukas have been made part of it. Warangal, Mulugu, Mahabubabad, Pakala(Narsampet) remained in Warangal district. But again Parkaala from Karimnagar district and Jangaon taluka from Nalgonda district have become part of Warangal district living back Nalgonda, Miryalguda, Deverkonda, Bhongir, Ramannapet, Suryapet, and Huzurnagar to Nalgonda district. After these changes in 1953, few villages of Jangaon taluka went to Medak district and some remained in Nalgonda district.

During the reigm of Marri Chenna Reddy in 1979, Jangaon taluka was split into Cherial, Kodakandla and Jangaon talukas, at that time Jangaon taluk consist of 7 Circles namely Jangaon, Cherial, Rebarthi, Narmetta, Ippaguda, Chennur and Kodakondla Cirles. In 1985, when N. T. Rama Rao introduced the mandal system, Jangaon taluka was further divided in to Jangaon Mandal, Raghunathpalle, Lingalaghanpur and Devaruppula mandals.

On 11 October 2016 Jangaon was made the district headquarters, along with 21 newly formed districts in Telangana. Warangal district was divided in to Five districts are Warangal Urban district, Warangal Rural district, Jangaon district, Jayashankar Bhoopalapalli district and Mahabubabad district. Jangaon district was formed mostly from the old Jangaon Revenue division, with the exception of Maddur, Cherial and Komuravelli mandals, which were transferred to newly formed Siddipet district, Ghanpur and Zaffergadh from Warangal Revenue division and Gundala of Nalgonda district were merged with Jangaon district.